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2020-05-05 | Subject | Where Does Stuff Come From?

The resolution of crises, and change in general, often revolves around simple questions. Simple questions can facilitate inclusive agreement and transparency; however, the simplest questions are the most difficult for people to face, because this requires tangible decisions, a solid understanding of the situation, and inclusive collaboration. The idea that situations and strategy can be resolved by simple questions is counter-intuitive to many. Normally we expect solutions to large problems to be solved by an authority with access to complicated knowledge frameworks, something beyond our understanding. Alternatively we might fall back to divisive, tribal approaches, and tell different stories that explain the current crisis and blame it on another tribe.

Consider the simple question "Where does stuff come from?". Let's answer this for a coffee cup. We can model this with three symbols. Let's say that D stands for materials sitting at rest, and is signified by a rectangle enclosing the D and a reference number. Let's say that a rounded box transforms materials by transporting, baking, mixing or other changes, and people/groups/organizations are symbolized by a square box. From a simplistic perspective, cups come from the cupboard. A diagram showing how I obtain the cup in my hand could look like this:

tray

D1= where cups are stored at rest
1 = the process of picking up a cup
Me = myself

Of course this is not complete. What material is it made from? Does it have glaze on it? Where did the components of the material come from? Did you buy it? How did you buy it? How did you get the money to buy it? Who did you buy it from? How was the item displayed at the store? Did it arrive on your doorstep in a cardboard box? Did you find some clay and bake it in the town's communal kiln?

As humans we are limited cognitively when considering the number of participants with different goals, some common, some not, working with different tools. We generally think of the world as divided into different teams, and we can collaboratively use several tools together at the same time, but for more complex systems we need models. This is why we often relapse into tribal modes of thinking of the world, particularly if we don't feel empowered to own our own methods of modeling.

Language is a model. Written word is a model. Science and engineering are models. We use these models to ratchet civilization forward. As an example, it is fairly easy to consider the manufacture of a cup if clay is gathered directly and baked in the town's communal kiln, but for more complicated models of creating stuff, it is impossible to imagine without models. Writing is required to maintain a civilization of any size based on agriculture. Industrial civilization is more difficult to model. Let's turn our focus to industrial civilization. Here is how the supply chain might look for a cup made in a factory:

mall
Figure 2: Graph of Simple Supply Chain

D4 = where various kinds of glaze are stored at the glaze supplier
D8 = cups fired in a kiln by the workers on the clay injector line
D10 = cups at the loading dock of the store ready to be stocked

This was made using MCJ and Cruft Buster. Here is how the triples are entered:

A bigger question, related to where stuff comes from, is what negative externalities are associated with the item. Negative externalities are things like pollution or resource usage that are not directly related to the item. Generally, the clay or metal in the manufacture of a cup, for example, is accounted for as direct cost, as is labor and other normal expenses. Usually externalities, either positive or negative, are not tracked. With a cup there is some pollution associated with transport, not only of the item itself, but all things associated with it: the people who made it, the breakfast sandwich they bought at the drive-through on the way to work and the sandwich wrapper. It forms a transitive web.

If a worker drives a car to go to the store at the mall where the coffee mug was displayed, there is some obvious environmental degradation associated with that. Not all externalities are negative. A singer in the park might get direct income from a tip jar, but a positive externality would be enjoyment of the park for all visitors. Negative externalities would be singing that is so bad it detracts from enjoyment of the park, or perhaps the singer leaves litter behind. Negative externalities are subsidesed by the surrounding socio-economic-ecological system where the activity takes place.

A cup is a relatively simple thing. A smart phone, though, is so far out of the realm of a cup, that it is almost a silly idea to even try and compare the supply chain webs, but I will try. Smart phones are interesting because of the layered webs of intellectual property (IP). Some components represent tiny little moonshots as far as the extent of the web of creation, CDMA, for instance. Guarding the IP, monetizing it, is more important because of the scale. A large portion of the cost of a smart phone is IP. The small moonshot analogy is interesting for multiple reasons, but the most entertaining is how the actual US moonshot bootstrapped the supply chains that allowed the manufacture of other consumer and military items.

Consider our simple cup graph. Items like loading docs, clay injectors, back hoes, and shipping routes all need to exist before a cup can exist using this model for manufacture. Getting this up and running takes some time and energy. Once the supply chain is operational it can be kept afloat by the participants. If the delivery truck breaks down, the participants can fix the truck without needing to understand the entire system. This is what I'm calling bootstrapping. For cups, it is somewhat triviaal, at least to us. The equivalent in 1177 BC might take some serious Egyptian scribes and leaders to bootstrap, though. And, as a side note, WWII bootstrapped other industries and supply chains. There is a significant amount of IP that was financed by wars.

IP is often related to supply chains with technical items. Consider "Where does stuff come from?" in the context of AM radio. This becomes "How do we convert signals in the air to sound in a speaker?" The answer might be a transistor or diode, and it might be patented IP. There are many more items that we need to trace. Rinse and repeat for fifty years until you get to smart phone.

In addition to the direct sources, the water, air, and other resources and associated negative externalities of a smart phone are more significant and complicated than a cup as well. Now, if I go find some clay myself and fire it in a communal kiln along with 15 other cups, say, I will see the damage I did to the side of the hill and breathe in the smoke from the kiln. The negative externalities are in my face. If I create a factory to make cups, I can make millions of them. The negative externalities associated with production are now concentrated. I can load up trucks with clay and fire the cups in a huge kiln with conveyor belts and rows of people packing the finished cups into crates for shipment.

For most people, not only the tangible, direct costs are hidden, but so are the negative externalities. With a smart phone, the negative externalities are spread out around the planet. Somewhere there is a mine for a particular mineral that is needed, and it is likely that the ecological and sociological horror of the mine is disturbing, but it is hidden from view for most people. Take the above simple graph of creating and distributing a cup, add in the negative externalities, and multiply it by trillions, and we have the magic of industrial civilization. Now, there is an interesting bit of human behavior that is illustrated by this. Those that are horrified by the mine, might make it their goal in life to ban the mine. That might be a good goal, but unless the entire system is addressed, it is likely just a form of wack-a-mole or it is an economic disaster for all of the people involved in the supply chain upstream from the mine. Of course, we create amazing things as well. A smart phone, in many ways, is the pinnacle of that achievement, and is mind-numbing in power.

Not only do we have food, but we have all of the other items we are accustomed to. Consider a typical hospital room. Consider the equipment associated with treatment, the drug companies, the clinical trials, the drug testing, the distribution networks, and the intellectual property associated with medical moonshots. If we add medical to food, we have seriously increased our attention and the web we need to map out. But that isn't all. We have a very rich and complex consumer society that requires other items, and there are few countries where the populace is not striving to obtain these items.

The answer, then, to the question "Where does stuff come from?" is: "Stuff comes from a very complex web of interdependent relations, each relatively simple, but when looked at globally it forms trillions of dependencies." I know what you must be thinking. "Ms. Codrust, if you are saying that stuff comes from a web of trillions of interdependent relations, then how can this possibly be answered?" Well, first of all, I claimed that the question was simple, and was important to focus on. I didn't say the answer was easy to determine. Let's move on to another two simple questions with complex answers: "Where are we now?" "How did we get here?".

Let's take a wander into information technology (IT). Prior to computers, the main basic question, "Where does stuff come from?" was solved by creating warehouses and tracking supply chains on paper. Let's take the cup example. To be profitable, we need to make millions of cups at a time with our factory model. (We are going to assume the factory model here. It is a reasonable assumption at this point in civilization with our population.) The factory needs to have a reliable supply of items to create cups. Let's say these are simple clay cups with a glaze. The factory needs clay, glaze, packing materials, stuff for the kiln, etc. The company owning the factory would purchase supplies from another company that specialized in shipping trucks full of clay and glaze to factories. The manufactured cups were then sent out to other companies that specialized in selling to retail outlets that sold cups. Some of these retail outlets had catalog sales that would deliver items directly to the consumer rather than the consumer traveling to the store.

Tracing where stuff comes from prior to computers for the consumer and retailer was relatively easy. The consumer got the the cups from a retailer, a street vendor, or their kid made it at school. Let's use the retailer as an example. Likely the retailer had their own warehouses that bought cups in bulk from either distributors with warehouses or directly from the factory. Smaller retailers bought cups from distributors with warehouses. The factory got their stuff from warehouses of clay and glaze. Those warehouses worked with mining companies directly or through distributors with warehouses. It was a web, but a fairly understandable web.

There are a couple problems with this. Even with what I've laid out, there is some fuzzy stuff on the supply chain. Perhaps the factory can buy directly from somebody with a dump truck and a back hoe, but what happens when Joe with a back hoe hurts his back? Well, what if the factory bought from 100 Joe's with a back hoe? They wouldn't need to rely on the distributor with the warehouse. If Joe with a back hoe is more expensive than ACME Inc. with a million dollar digger, they can buy from ACME. This kind of flexibility makes businesses more profitable and resilient. Make a note of this, though, because it is quite likely that Joe with a back hoe might be grabbing some clay from the easiest piece of land he can find, and it might have a larger negative externality (like he scraped the clay out of a nearby park at midnight).

In addition to the flexibility of vendors, another problem creeps in. This is the problem of warehouses and inventory in general. At the most basic level, how much clay should a distributor or factory store? Holding inventory is a cost. In the early eighties this is the core idea of "just in time" manufacturing (JIT). Having multiple sources for that clay helps. Having a hundred sources is better. If you have a hundred sources for clay, and quick insight into supply problems so you can reroute, perhaps you can just keep a one week supply of clay on hand.

Computers are good at tracking these types of complex relationships. It is unlikely that a factory could direct source clay from 100 "Joe's with a back hoe" (JWABH) and several ACMEs with million dollar diggers without computers. Notice what this did to our cup, though. Modern civilization now requires computers. What does all of this run on? Mostly oil. Further, the negative externalities of producing computers is much more extensive than a cup, much like it is with a smart phone. It is not necessarily true that there is less environmental degradation from me heading out with a shovel, finding some clay, and firing a cup in a kiln I made myself than participating in the complex web of a modern supply chain.

We need to pause a bit here and consider what this means. We are now at 1982 or so in modern industrial civilization. We have an incredibly complex supply chain with multiple sources, and are using IT to keep everything running. Additionally, we have many associated jobs. Besides the 100 JWABHs, we have shipping clerks, retail clerks, gas attendants, telephone operators, the person at the drive-through window that gave the factory worker the breakfast sandwich, the person that made the breakfast sandwich wrapper, etc.

Notice how in 1982 we provided more options at the front-end of the process? JIT focused on the JWABHs and mutliple ACMEs with giant diggers. Between 1982 and today, we have used this same approach on the consumer side, using computers to map resources directly to individual consumers. Further, we have commoditized the human effort at all levels so that they are replacable in the various stages, much like we have done with the end-points. In other words, we have transformed human activity and the planet into a big supply chain. Don't believe me? Look around yourself now. What do you see? What is behind the objects? Again, ask yourself the simple question, "Where does stuff come from?" and use some of the ideas above to answer the question.

There is one final bit that you should be aware of. Not only have we formed a giant supply chain without much attention to negative externalities, but our attention is being managed to optimize the profit from the supply chain. We aren't just marketed to. Our social interactions have become part of the global supply chain. We are doing this to ourselves every day.

I said at the beginning that anybody could lay out these supply chains and start collaborating on solutions. I also cautioned against tribal, populist approaches. It is possible to map out negative externalities. It is possible to map out supply chains. Much of the tech involved is free and open. Appendix A is a standard format for graphs that will automatically visualize the graph. This was created by AT&T in the 1990s. The supply chain can also be represented by a filesystem tree in Appendix B. Finally, it is possible to create models of an extremely large set of relations using tech that was refined by medical groups studing genes and other health topics. The model simple supply chain model from above is listed as N-Triples in Appendix C, can be analyzed in a graph database like Apache Jena. If you would like to play with a very large database like this, see DBpedia. If you doubt that we can tackle "Where stuff comes from?" with tech like this, please revew this site, where many very complicated systems are analyzed using records like Appendix C. If you were able to follow the graphs above, the beautiful thing about this is that the most sophisticated models still use the same format. The only difference is in the meaning of the connected entities in the graph. This is meaning we can agree on.

Appendix A: Dot File of Simple Supply Chain

digraph {
charset="utf-8";overlap="false";
splines="true";
sep="+10";
node [shape=record];
"D2" [label="<f0> D2|<f1> Dump\nTruck\n" tooltip=""];
"1" [label="{<f0>  1|<f1> Back\nHoe\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"Operator" [label=" Operator\n" shape=box tooltip=""];
"D1" [label="<f0> D1|<f1> Mud\nMine\n" tooltip=""];
"D3" [label="<f0> D3|<f1> Factory\nMud Pile\n" tooltip=""];
"2" [label="{<f0>  2|<f1> Deliver\nMud\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"Driver" [label=" Driver\n" shape=box tooltip=""];
"D5" [label="<f0> D5|<f1> Glaze King\nLoading\nDock\n" tooltip=""];
"3" [label="{<f0>  3|<f1> Pick\nand\nPack\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"Picker" [label=" Picker\n" shape=box tooltip=""];
"D4" [label="<f0> D4|<f1> Glaze\nBins\n" tooltip=""];
"D6" [label="<f0> D6|<f1> Factory\nLoading\nDock\n" tooltip=""];
"4" [label="{<f0>  4|<f1> Delivery\nService\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"D7" [label="<f0> D7|<f1> Filtered\nClay\n" tooltip=""];
"5" [label="{<f0>  5|<f1> Day\nLabor\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"D8" [label="<f0> D8|<f1> Kiln\nBelt\n" tooltip=""];
"6" [label="{<f0>  6|<f1> Clay\nInjector\nLine\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"LineStaff" [label=" Injector\nLine\nStaff\n" shape=box tooltip=""];
"7" [label="{<f0>  7|<f1> Glaze\nSpray\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"D9" [label="<f0> D9|<f1> Shipping\n" tooltip=""];
"8" [label="{<f0>  8|<f1> Pack\nCups\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"D10" [label="<f0> D10|<f1> Store\nDock\n" tooltip=""];
"9" [label="{<f0>  9|<f1> Shipping\n


}" shape=Mrecord tooltip=""];
"ShippingStaff" [label=" Shipping\nStaff\n" shape=box tooltip=""];
"1" -> "D2"[label="Mud" labeltooltip="1 -> D2" fontsize=16];
"1" -> "Operator"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="1<-Operator" fontsize=16];
"1" -> "D1"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="1<-D1" fontsize=16];
"2" -> "D3"[label=" Mud   " labeltooltip="2 -> D3" fontsize=16];
"2" -> "Driver"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="2<-Driver" fontsize=16];
"2" -> "D2"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="2<-D2" fontsize=16];
"3" -> "D5"[label="" labeltooltip="3 -> D5" fontsize=16];
"3" -> "Picker"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="3<-Picker" fontsize=16];
"3" -> "D4"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="3<-D4" fontsize=16];
"4" -> "D6"[label="" labeltooltip="4 -> D6" fontsize=16];
"4" -> "D5"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="4<-D5" fontsize=16];
"5" -> "D7"[label="" labeltooltip="5 -> D7" fontsize=16];
"5" -> "D3"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="5<-D3" fontsize=16];
"6" -> "D8"[label="" labeltooltip="6 -> D8" fontsize=16];
"6" -> "LineStaff"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="6<-LineStaff" fontsize=16];
"6" -> "D7"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="6<-D7" fontsize=16];
"7" -> "D8"[label="" labeltooltip="7 -> D8" fontsize=16];
"7" -> "LineStaff"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="7<-LineStaff" fontsize=16];
"7" -> "D6"[dir="back" label="Glaze" labeltooltip="7<-D6" fontsize=16];
"8" -> "D9"[label="" labeltooltip="8 -> D9" fontsize=16];
"8" -> "LineStaff"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="8<-LineStaff" fontsize=16];
"8" -> "D8"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="8<-D8" fontsize=16];
"9" -> "D10"[label="Cups" labeltooltip="9 -> D10" fontsize=16];
"9" -> "ShippingStaff"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="9<-ShippingStaff" fontsize=16];
"9" -> "D9"[dir="back" label="" labeltooltip="9<-D9" fontsize=16];
}

Appendix B: File System Tree of Simple Supply Chain

.
├── 1
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   ├── D1.txt -> ../../D1.txt
│   │   └── Operator.txt -> ../../Operator.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       ├── D2.predlabel.txt
│       └── D2.txt -> ../../D2.txt
├── 1.contains.txt
├── 1.details.txt
├── 1.title.txt
├── 2
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   ├── D2.txt -> ../../D2.txt
│   │   └── Driver.txt -> ../../Driver.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       ├── D3.predlabel.txt
│       └── D3.txt -> ../../D3.txt
├── 2.contains.txt
├── 2.details.txt
├── 2.title.txt
├── 3
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   ├── D4.txt -> ../../D4.txt
│   │   └── Picker.txt -> ../../Picker.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       ├── D5.predlabel.txt
│       └── D5.txt -> ../../D5.txt
├── 3.contains.txt
├── 3.details.txt
├── 3.title.txt
├── 4
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   ├── D5.predlabel.txt
│   │   └── D5.txt -> ../../D5.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       └── D6.txt -> ../../D6.txt
├── 4.contains.txt
├── 4.details.txt
├── 4.title.txt
├── 5
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   └── D3.txt -> ../../D3.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       └── D7.txt -> ../../D7.txt
├── 5.contains.txt
├── 5.details.txt
├── 5.title.txt
├── 6
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   ├── D7.txt -> ../../D7.txt
│   │   └── LineStaff.txt -> ../../LineStaff.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       └── D8.txt -> ../../D8.txt
├── 6.contains.txt
├── 6.details.txt
├── 6.title.txt
├── 7
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   ├── D6.predlabel.txt
│   │   ├── D6.txt -> ../../D6.txt
│   │   └── LineStaff.txt -> ../../LineStaff.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       └── D8.txt -> ../../D8.txt
├── 7.contains.txt
├── 7.details.txt
├── 7.title.txt
├── 8
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   ├── D8.txt -> ../../D8.txt
│   │   └── LineStaff.txt -> ../../LineStaff.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       └── D9.txt -> ../../D9.txt
├── 8.contains.txt
├── 8.details.txt
├── 8.title.txt
├── 9
│   ├── has_specified_input
│   │   ├── D9.txt -> ../../D9.txt
│   │   └── ShippingStaff.txt -> ../../ShippingStaff.txt
│   └── has_specified_output
│       ├── D10.predlabel.txt
│       └── D10.txt -> ../../D10.txt
├── 9.contains.txt
├── 9.details.txt
├── 9.title.txt
├── D10.details.txt
├── D10.txt
├── D1.details.txt
├── D1.txt
├── D2.details.txt
├── D2.txt
├── D3.details.txt
├── D3.txt
├── D4.details.txt
├── D4.txt
├── D5.details.txt
├── D5.txt
├── D6.details.txt
├── D6.txt
├── D7.details.txt
├── D7.txt
├── D8.details.txt
├── D8.txt
├── D9.details.txt
├── D9.txt
├── Driver.details.txt
├── Driver.txt
├── GlazeBins.details.txt
├── GlazeBins.txt
├── has_specified_output
│   └── 2.txt -> ../../2.txt
├── LineStaff.details.txt
├── LineStaff.txt
├── Operator.details.txt
├── Operator.txt
├── Picker.details.txt
├── Picker.txt
├── ShippingStaff.details.txt
└── ShippingStaff.txt

Appendix C: N-Triples File of Simple Supply Chain

<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.1> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.1> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D2> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.1> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.1> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000023#0.Operator> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.1> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.1> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D1> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.2> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.2> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D3> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.2> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.2> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000023#0.Driver> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.2> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.2> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D2> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.3> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.3> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D5> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.3> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.3> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000023#0.Picker> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.3> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.3> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D4> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.4> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.4> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D6> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.4> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.4> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D5> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.5> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.5> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D7> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.5> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.5> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D3> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.6> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.6> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D8> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.6> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.6> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000023#0.LineStaff> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.6> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.6> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D7> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.7> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.7> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D8> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.7> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.7> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000023#0.LineStaff> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.7> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.7> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D6> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.8> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.8> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D9> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.8> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.8> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000023#0.LineStaff> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.8> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.8> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D8> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.9> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.9> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000299> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D10> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.9> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.9> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000023#0.ShippingStaff> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.9> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000067> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#> .
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000011#0.9> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/OBI_0000293> <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/IAO_0000030#0.D9> .

bootstrap civilization

Articles tagged with civilization on Mud Hut Club:

2020-07-03: Tech Won't Save Us